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 Uttar Pradesh in one of the most ancient cradles of Indian culture. While it is true that no Harappa and Mohan-Jodaro have been discovered in the State, the antiquities found in Banda (Bundelkhand),  Mirzapur and Meerut link its History to early Stone Age and Harappan era. Chalk drawings or dark red drawings by primitive men are extensively found in the Vindhyan ranges of Mirzapur districts. Utensils of that age have also been discovered in Atranji-Khera, Kaushambi, Rajghat and Sonkh. Copper articles have been found in Kanpur, Unnao, Mirzapur, Mathura and advent of the Aryans in this State. It is most probable that snapped links between the Indus Valley and Vedic civilizations lie buried under the ruins of ancient sites found in this State.



There is hardly any mention of the area comprising present Uttar Pradesh in Vedic hymns. Even the sacred rivers, the Ganga and Yamuna, appear only on the distance horizon of the land of the Aryans. In the later Vedic age, the importance of Sapta Sindhu recedes and Brahmarshi Desh or Madhya Desh assumes significance. The region comprising Uttar Pradesh at that time became a holy place of India and foremost center of Vedic culture and knowledge


The new States of Kuru-Panchal, Kashi and Kosal find mention in late-Vedic texts as prominent centers of Vedic culture. The people of Kuru-Panchat were regarded as the best representatives of Vedic culture. They enjoyed great respect as outstanding orators of Sanskrit. The conduct of schools and institutions by them was laudable. The life of their kinds was a model for other kings and their Brahmins were held in high esteem for their piety and scholarship. The Upanishads prominently mention the Panchal Parishad. The scholars from Kuru-Panchal were specially visited by the Videsh king on the occasion of Ashwamedh Yajna. The Panchal king Pravahan Jaivali himself was a great thinker who was praised even by Brahmin scholars like Shilik, Dalabhya, Shvetketu and his father Uddalak Aruni. Ajatshatru of Kashi was another great-philosopher king whose superiority was acknowledged by Brahmin scholars like Dripti, Valhaki, Gargya etc., Literature in various disciplines was authored on an extensive scale during this age culminating in the Upanishads. They signify the highest reach of human imagination. The Upanishad literature was the product of meditation in the Ashrams of the sages, several of which were in Uttar Pradesh, Eminent sages like Bharadwaj, Yajnavalkya, Vashishta, Valmiki and Atri have either their Ashrams here or were otherwise connected with this State. Some Aranyans and Upanishads were, in written in the Ashrams located in this State.




The cultural heritage of Uttar pradesh was maintained in the period of the Ramayan and Mahabharat i.e. the epic period. The story of Ramayan revolves round the Ikshwaku dynasty of Kosal and of Mahabharat a round the 'Kuru' dynasty of Hastinapur. Local people firmly believe that the Ashram of Valmiki, the author of Ramayan, was in Brahmavart (Bithoor in Kanpur District) and it was in the surroundings of Naimisharany (Nimsar-Misrikh in Sitapur district) that Suta narrated the story of Mahabharat as he had heard it from Vyasji. Some of the Smritis and Puranas were also written in this State.Gautam Buddha, Mahavir, Makkhaliputta Goshal and great thinkers brought about a revolution in Uttar Pradesh in 6th century B.C. Out of these, Makkhaliputta Goshal, who was born at Shravan near Shravasti, was the founder of Ajivika sect. 


Mahavir, the 24th Trithankar of Jains was born in Bihar but had a large number of followers in Uttar Pradesh. He is said to have lived twice during rainy season in this State-once in Shravasti and the second time in Padrauna near Deoria. Pawa proved to be his last resting place. In fact, Jainism had entrenched itself in this State even before the arrival of Mahavir. Several Tirthankars such as Parshwanath, Sambharnath and Chandraprabha were born in different cities in this State and attained 'Kaivalya' here. Jainism must have retained its popularity in this State in Subsequent centuries also. this fact is borne by the ruins of several ancient temples. buildings, etc. The remains of a magnificient Jain Stupa have been dug out near Kankali Tila in Mathura, while Jain shrines built in early middle Age are still preserved in Deogarh, Chanderi and other places.




The founder of Buddhism, Gautam the Buddha, was born in Lumbini in Nepal. His father, King Shuddodhan, was the ruler of a small State, Kapilvastu (now in Siddharthnagar district). His mother, Maya, belonged to the ruling family of another small state, Deodah (now in Deoria district). 

The Buddha attained Enlightenment at Bodh Gaya in Bihar but it was in Isipattan or Mrigdav in Sarnath in U.P. that the preached his first sermon and laid the foundation of his Order. From this point of view, Sarnath has the distinction of being the birth place of 'Dhamma' and 'Sangha', the two elements of the Holy Trinity of Buddism,the third being the Buddha himself.Other notable places in Uttar Pradesh followed by Buddha's association are Kushinara of Kushinagar (in Deoria district) where he attained 'Mahaparinirvana, Shravasti the capital of Kisal where he performed a great miracle, and Sankashyar Sankisa (in Etah district) where another miracle of his life occured.The rulers of several states in the then Uttar Pradesh were greately influenced by the teaching of Buddha.

The People of the State also did not lag behind in showing love and devotion to the Tathagat, greater part of whose monastic life was spent in Uttar Pradesh. Thus it will be no exaggeration to describe Uttar Pradesh as the Cradle of Buddhism. Besides Buddhism and Jainism, Pauranic Brahmanism also had deep roots in the state. Ancient images of Gods and Goddesses of Brahmanical order, a temple of Kushan period has been found which alludes to Brahmanism. In fact Mathura can be said to be the birthplace of Indian sculpture. Other temples of this faith built in different periods are in Varanasi, Allahabad, Ballia, Ghazipur. Jhansi and Kanpur.



In successive centuries after Buddha, Ayodhya, Prayag, Varanasi, Mathura and several other cities continued to play important role in the making of religious and cultural history in India. Several kings who ruled the region became immortal because of Vedic rituals performed by them and patronage extended by them to learning. Scholars like Ashwaghosh, Kalidas, Ban, Mayur, Diwakar, Vakpati, Bhavbhuti, Rajshekhar, Laxmidhar, Sri Harsh and Krishna Misra adorned their courts. Yuan-chwang says that the people of Uttar Pradesh were full masters of the language and spoke it correctly, there pronunciation was like that of the Devas, elegant, beautiful, and their intonation clear and district, worthy of emulation by others, the rules framed be these people were accepted by all. Rajashekhar of Pratihar also payas homage in the similar vein to the people and poets of Panchal.

Varanasi continued to be a prominent centre of learning as in the past. Ayodhya and Mathura acquired fameas birth places of Ram and Krishna. Pilgrims from every corner of the country continued to throng to Prayag and as such it was called the Tirtharaj Similarly, the north mountain region, where Kailash and Mansarovar are situated and from where the holy rivers of the country originate, also remained sacred for the piligrims.

The Shankaracharya established one of the four prominent sacred Dhams in Badrikashram in this region.



The liberal traditions continued to flourish in Uttar Pradesh in the middle age as well. Varanasi remained a prominent centre of Hindu learning and Jaunpur, under the Sharqi rulers, a prominent center of Islamic culture. Jaunpur was describing as the 'Shiraz' of India. The Sharqi rulers were patrons of music also and there were many famous musicians in their court. Brij region was an important center of devotional music in those days. It was in Uttar Pradesh that 'Sufis' took inspiration from Hindu thought and philosophy. Ramanand and his famous disciple Kabir and other saints like Ravidas, Darya Shah and Guru Gorakhnath were some of the great men of those times who gave a new direction to the life and culture of this State.

The Hindu teachers laid emphasis on monotheism (oneness of God) and focused attention on the meaninglessness of the caste system. The Muslim sufis were greatly influenced by mysticism. All these saint-poets contributed to the enrichment of both Hindi and Urdu literature. A notable contribution was made by Sultan Feroz Tughlaq who got Sankrit works translated into Presian among the authors of this age, Zia-ud-din Barni will always be held in high esteem. The tradition of cultural synthesis, which was started by the sufis and saints during the rule of Sultans received great impetus during the reign of wise Mughals. It was a time when a distinct liberal outlook was discernible in all the spheres of human life such as religion, art and literatures.

Many Madaras and Makatabs were opened for muslim education and Varanasi became the traditional center of Hindu education. Hindi and Urdu literatures developed further and work of translation of Sanskrit books into persian gained nomentum. Tulsidas, Surdas, Keshavdas, Bhushan, Malik Mohammad Jayasi, Raskhan, Matiram, Ghananand, Bihari, Dev and Giridhar Kavirai were some of the great poets who brought into being, laurels to Uttar Pradesh. After the disintegration of the Mughal empire, smaller states which came also pursued a policy of giving patronage to poets and musicians.






Several styles of architecture can be seen in Uttar Pradesh. There are buildings built in the Hindu Buddhist styles and Royal memorials and monuments of Indo-Islamic architectuBuildings constructed in Avadh and Sharqi styles of architecture are also remarkable.In the Jatakas and other ancient works, we find description of several such cities, palaces and forts, which were at sometime situated within the confines of Uttar Pradesh and of which there is not trace now. Almost the similar fate met the Stupas, etc., which were built by Shakya, Malla and other rulers in this State in 6th century B.C. The famous Jain stupa whose ruins have been found in Kankali Tila in Mathura was also built during this period.



With the emergence of the Mauryans in 3rd century B.C., a new chapter was opened in the history of Art. It is said that Ashok visited Sarnath and Kushinagar and had personally ordered for construction of Stupas and Viharas at these two sacred places. Their traces have disappeared but the remnants of stone pillars found at Sarnath, Allahabad, Merut, Kausambi, Sankisa and Varanasi give us an idea of the excellence of Mauryan Art. All the Ashokan pillars have been built with Chunar stones. The Lion Capital of Sarnath is without doubt and excellent specimen of Mauryan ARt.

Writes the famous historian Vincent Smith, 'It would be difficult to find in any country an example of ancient animal sculpture, superior or even equal to this artistic expression of Sarnath, because it successfully combines realistic treatment with idealistic dignity and every detail has Come out with utmost perfection.' Mathura was another important centre of Art in the Mauryan Period. Colossal sculptures of Yakshas and Yakshinis have been found in the district Parkham, Borada and Jhing-ks-nagar and certain other places. All these represent contemporary folk art.

There was considerable artistic activity in Uttar Pradesh during Shung-Satvahan Period. A large number of architectural and other fragments found in the ruins of Sarnath tell us the story of buildings, etc. built during this period. The remains of a semi-circular temple of this period is now represented only by its foundation wall, During those days mathura was a prominent centre of Bharhut-Sanchi School of Art. Several important specimens of this schools have been found here.



The Mathura Schools of Art reached its pinnacle during the Kushan Period. The Most important work of this period is the anthromorphic image of the Buddha who was hitherto represented by certain symbols. The artists of Mathura and Gandha were pioneers who carved out images of the Buddha. Images of Jain Tirthankars and Hindu deities were also made in Mathura. Generally, all these intial images were huge in size. Their excellent specimens are still preserved in the museums at Lucknow, Varanasi, Allahabad and Mathura. Colossal images, in seated or standing postures, of Kushan emperors Vim Kadphises and Kanishk and Saka ruler Chashtan have also been found at Math in Mathura district. 

They are stated to have been installed in dev-kul (probably a place for worship of ancestors).There is not doubt that Mathura was the center of manufacturing of stone images (sculpture) during the Kushan Period. These images had a great demand in other parts of the country. Scenes depicted on Stone pillars found in Bhuteshwar and other places in Mathura district present glimpses of contemporary life including dresses, ornaments, means of entertainment, arms, household furniture, etc. 

Stone carvings of intoxicated groups of people that have been found, speak about foreign (Hellenistic) influence on this school of art. Considerable construction activities have come to notice in Sarnath also in Kushan Period, ruins of several monasteries, temples and Stupas of that period lie catered there even today.



The Gupta Period is known as the golden age in the history of Indian Art. Uttar Pradesh did not lag behind any of the country in artistic endeavor. The stone temple of Deogarh (Jhansi) and brick temple at Bhitargaon in Kanpur district is famous for their artistic panels. Some other specimens of ancient art and craft are Vishnu images, the standing statue of the Buddha in Mathura and the seated image of Tathagat in Sarnath museum. Both the Mathura and sarnath schools of Art reached their zenith during the Gupta Period. Elegance and balance were the special features of the architecture of this period while the sculptures were characterized by physical charm and mental peace.

Uttar Pradesh witnessed unprecedented advancement in iconographic forms and decorative motives during this period.Some excellent specimens of artistic statues made not only of stone but terra cotta as well, have also been found in Rajghat (Varanasi), Sahet-Mahet (Gonda-Bahraich), Bhitargaon (Kanpur) and Ahichhatra (Bareilly).

There was a flurry of building activity again in Uttar Pradesh in early mediaeval period. Muslim historians have lavished profuse praise on cities like Kannauj, Varanasi, Kalinjar and Mathura and forts, places and temples scattered all over the State. During the reigns of Gurjar-Pratihars and Gaharvars, Kannauj had become a prominent centre of art and learning but it also borne the brunt of the wrath of Muslim invaders. Very few specimen now survive to tell of the glory and grandeur of Kannaug. Kumar Devi, the consort of Gaharvar king Govind Chandra had constructed a very grand building at Sarnath known as Dharm-Chakra Jain Vihar.

The artistic beauty of Mathura temples was such that even the iconoclast Mahmud of Ghazni had praised them. The Chandel rulers of southern Uttar Pradesh were also great patrons of Art. Their building activities were mostly centered around Khajuraho in Madhya Pradesh but remains of temples and ponds constructed by contemporary architects have been found in Mahoba, Rasin, Rahilia and other places in modern bundelkhand as well. The fort built by them at Kalingar was impregnable from defense point of view. The temples and divine images in hill areas of Uttar Pradesh represent a special Art tradition of its own.




To far as Uttar Pradesh is concerned, the Sultanate period is known as a dark age in the realm of Art. The Sultans confined their building activities mainly to Delhi, although they constructed mausoleums and mosques here and there in Uttar Pradesh also.After the advent of Sharqi rulers in Jaunpur, a new life was infused in art activities. Under their patronage famous mosques like Atalla, Khalis-Mukhis, Jhanjihri and Lal Darwaza were constructed.The grandest and the biggest of them all is the Jama Masjid. The Atall Masjid built by Ibrahim Sharqi in 1408 AD became a model for the comstruction of other mosques in Jaunpur.It is an exquisite specimen of the Hindu and Muslim architechture reflecting both vigour and grace in style of construction. The Jaunpur mosques have certain special features. The most important of these is their artistic propylaeum. These mosques have facilities for women to offer prayers. For this, beautiful galleries surrounded by artistic walls were constructed. Fortress architecture also development under the patronage of the Sharqis. The fort in Jaunpur constructed in Uttar Pradesh early in the mediaeval period has an importance of its own. Although it is in a dilapidated state now, when it was in good shape, its bold and graceful style was universally praised and widely followed. Today only its eastern gateway and a few extent are there to remind us of its past glory and splendor.



The composite Indian and Muslim style of architecture reached its climax during the Mughal Period. The Taj Mahal described as a dream in marble is a living example of this style. Innumerable forts and places, mosques and mausoleum and baths and tanks were constructed during this period, known for their bold, graceful and grand style. No doubt, babar the founder of the Mughal dynasty, constructed the mosques at Ayodhya and Sambhal but the Mughal architecture is mainly associated with his two descendants-Akbar and Shahjahan. 

The Mughal architecture was marked by its grandeur during the reign of Akbar and by its lyrical quality during the reign of Shahjahan.The monuments built by Akbar in Sikri, and in Agra and Delhi by Shahjahan, reflect their mental attitudes. So long as Shahjahan did not shift his capital to Delhi, Agra and its neighborhood remained the main centre of Mughal architectural Activity.Prominent buildings constructed in Uttar Pradesh in the Mughal Period include the city built in Sikri by Akbar, the Agra Fort,and buildings within the mausoleum of Akbar in sikandra and of Etmad-ud-daula n Agra, the Akbar's fort in Allahabad and mosques constructed by Aurangazeb in Mathura, Mathura, Varanasi and Lucknow.

Doubtlessly, the most magnificent among them is the Taj Mahal which can appropriately be described as India's tribute to the grace of womanhood and a memorial to the romantic love of an emperor wrought in marble. Several grand temples and ghats were also constructed during this period at Mathura, Vrindavan and many other places. The special features of Mughal architecture were use of marble, smooth and colourful floors, delicate stone tracery and inlay work and happy blending of Indian and Muslim styles. The Sikri walls not only depict line drawings but also human and animal forms. Garhwal also developed its own school of painting during this period. The Mughal architecture can be divided into two categories. Under the first category come the buildings constructed with marble according to the Royal Firman of Shahjahan. The use of valuable marble of soft hues by Shahjahan in place of gaudy red colour used during Akbar reign allude to the diverse personalities of Akbar and Shahjahan. The fort of Agra is an example of architecture in Akbars time. Built on a grand scale, it represents a fusion of both Indian and Muslim styles of architecture. Akbar also built a fort in Allahabad which enjoyed the same importance as that of the Agra Fort during his reign. But the most important architectural project of Akbar was the building of a new capital city, Fatehpur-Sikri, 40 km. away from Agra. Akbar built many palaces and pavilions here which were famous for their beauty, splendour and perfection. The buildings at Fatehpur-Sikri can be divided into two classes-religious and secular. The former include the shrine of Sheikh Salim Chishti and the great mosque, while the latter include the palace of Jodhabai, the Mariam-ki-Kothi, the Sunahra Makan and the Panch Mahal. A fusion of the architectural styles of Akbar and Shahjahan is found in the tomb of Nurjahans father Etmad-ud-daula at Agra. This mausoleum is unique in the sense that it appears to give a new interpretation of contemporary architectural style. Not built on a grand scale, its object was to preserve delicacy, grace and beauty of contemporary architectural workmanship.



The Mughal style of architecture reached its pinnacle during the reign of Shahjahan. It was the age of marble and its natural beauty could be fully brought out due to the aesthetic taste of the Emperor. A new fluidity was seen in the drawings, designs and forms due to the appropriate changes effected in style and technique of construction. This changed style can be seen even in the Agra Fort. Several red sandstone buildings constructed by Akbar were demolished and rebuilt with marble.

In this connection mention may be made of Diwan-e-Am and Diwan-e-Khas. The Nagina Masjid, Musamman Burj and Moti Masjid are some of the exquisite examples of matchless taste and superb workmanship. But Taj Mahal stands out among them all. It was built by Emperor Shahjahan in memory of his beloved Queen Mumtaz Mahal.

Constructed entirely of white Makrana marble, it is capped with extremely shapely dome, culminating in the best creation lf mughal architecture. Its delicate workmanship, grace, Iyricism and purity of form invest it with a dreamy beauty which can be compared to the reflection of a delicate and beautiful rose in moonlight. Besides monuments and mausoleums built by the Mughals, local rulers also constructed notable buildings at several places in the State. These buildings constructed in Jaunpur and Lucknow styles are specially attractive and charming but on the whole they lack the vastness and splendour of the Mughal monuments.



There was a sudden stalemate in the field of architecture after Shahjahan's death. But the Nawabs of Avadh kept alive some of the old traditions of buildings construction. They built many places, mosques, gates, gardens and Imambaras. In the beginning, the buildings constructed by them were confined to Faizabad alone, but later on the main centre of their architectural activity shifted to Lucknow. Among them, famous buildings are the Ashaf-ud-Daula Imambara, the Mausoleum in Kiserbagh, Lal Baradari, the Residency, Shahnazaf, Husainabad Imambara, Chhatr Manjil, Moti Mahal, Kaiserbagh Place, Dilkusha Gardens and Sikandarabagh. The style of these buildings may be decadent and hybrid but it has its own special characteristics such as fish motif at the gates, domes with golden umbrellas, vaulted halls, arcaded pavilions, underground chambers, and labyrinths. 

The Bara Immabara built by Asaf-ud-Daula is both dignified and imposing. Its vaulted hall is typical of pure Lucknow style and is said to be the biggest hall of its kind in the world. Certain people have criticised the Lucknow style as being merely a mixture of other styles and indeed several Nawabi buildings appear to be crude imitations of western architecture.Yet, they have an important place in the history of Indo-Muslim architecture. Some of the Buildings of this style are, as a matter of fact, beautiful creations of art. A notable change was brought about in the policy of providing State patronage to Art during the British Rule and thereafter.

The State ceased to evince interest in religious constructions i.e. construction of temples, mosques etc. But construction of secular buildings like schools, colleges, government offices, etc. was taken up on a large scale. These buildings mark a radical change in traditional construction activity. Being utilitarian in nature and bereft of all architectural pretensions, they have indeed ushered in a new era in the history of architecture in Uttar Pradesh.


Art and Craft

The major art forms popular and practiced in Uttar Pradesh since time immemorial are painting, sculpture, hand-crafted designs on metal, wood, ivory, stone and clay.


The tradition of painting in Uttar Pradesh goes back to pre-historic times. The cave paintings of Sonbhadra and Chitrakoot depict scenes of hunting, war, festivals, dances, romantic life and animals. The golden period of painting in UP was the Mughal Era. The art of painting attained its peak during the reign of Jahangir. The Mughal style of painting remains one of the greatest achievements of Asian culture and is unique in its concept, presentation and style.

The art of painting reached the epitome of perfection in the area of Bundelkhand when the King of Orchha reconstructed the temple of Keshav Dev in Mathura. The paintings of Mathura, Gokul, Vrindavan and Govardhan depict scenes from the life of Lord Krishna. Another major pre-modern painting tradition of UP is known as the Garhwal School which was patronized by the Kings of Garhwal.


One of the important crafts of Uttar Pradesh is Chikankari, which entails delicate and traditional hand embroidery. This form of handicrafts is mainly practiced in Lucknow. It is done on fabrics like chiffon, muslin, organza, organdie and silkChikan saris and Kurtas make the perfect summer wear.

Zardoji embroidery is another unique art where the embroidery is done in three dimensions. Zari works of Varanasi are famous the world over.

Pottery and exquisite metal ware products are also created on a large scale in Uttar Pradesh.

Carpet weaving is also an important cultural expression of Uttar Pradesh. The state caters to 90 percent of the country's carpets and the carpet weaving centers in the state are primarily located around Mirzapur, Khamaria and Bhadohi.


Brassware Uttar Pradesh is the largest Brass and Copper producing state in India. In domestic-ware each of the 'lotas' (small water-pots) is known by the name of its origin, like Etawah, Banaras, Sitapur, etc. The ritual articles are largely in copper. Moradabad in U P is famous for art metalwork and known for its coloured enamelling and intricate engravings.


Glazed pottery with white background and blue and green patterns is developed in Khurja, Chunar and Rampur in Uttar Pradesh. UP produces some of the finest Chunar black clay pottery. This is inlaid with silver paint in intricate designs. The art that is perfected in Nizamabad, has high gloss and lustre derived from a powder called kabiz made from the mud of rice fields. Khurja is also well known for its cheap and tough tableware.


Gorakhpur has villages where clay figures of animals are done and It is famous for its ornately decorated terracotta horse. The potter creates the basic form by throwing separate pieces on the wheel and then joining them.


Lucknow is well known for its jewellery and enamelling work. Exquisite silverware's with patterns of hunting scenes, snakes and roses are very popular. The Bidri andZarbuland silver works of Lucknow find expression on excellent pieces of huqqa farshi, jewel boxes, trays, bowls, cufflinks, cigarette holders, etc. Renowned ivory and bone carvings with motifs of flowers, leaves, creepers, trees, birds and animals are widely produced in Lucknow. The master craftsmen create intricate items like knives, lampshades, shirt pins and small toys.



'Attars' or perfumes are also produced in Lucknow from the 19th century. The Lucknow perfumers experimented and succeeded in making attar with delicate and lasting fragrances those are made from various aromatic herbs, spices, sandal oil, musk, essence of flowers, and leaves. The famous Lucknow fragrances are khus, keora, chameli, zafran andagar.



Infrastructure & Industrial Development Department

Government of Uttar Pradesh, 4th Floor,

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